The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ established the first Islamic State in Medina with a distinct structure (ajhizaat) that continued with its main pillars until 1924. Although the styles (usloob) and means (waseelah) related to each of the institutions evolved over time, the hukm (rule) remained fixed. In the beginning the Prophet ﷺ took charge of most of these ajhizaat himself. As the state expanded, he ﷺ assigned different sahaba to specific roles.
وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ اللَّهَ غَافِلًا عَمَّا يَعْمَلُ الظَّالِمُونَ ۚ إِنَّمَا يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ لِيَوْمٍ تَشْخَصُ فِيهِ الْأَبْصَارُ مُهْطِعِينَ مُقْنِعِي رُءُوسِهِمْ لَا يَرْتَدُّ إِلَيْهِمْ طَرْفُهُمْ ۖ وَأَفْئِدَتُهُمْ هَوَاءٌ “Do not consider Allah to be unaware of what the wrongdoers perpetrate. He is merely deferring them to a Day on which their sight will be transfixed, rushing headlong – heads back, eyes vacant, hearts hollow.” (Ibrahim, 14:42-43) Muslims around the world are marking the 25th anniversary of the massacre in Srebrenica. At this sombre time it’s important to remember that this horrific event could only occur due to the absence of the Khilafat State. This is a state which protects those living under its authority, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, as the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said, إِنَّمَا الإِمَامُ جُنَّةٌ “The Imam is a shield”.
The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ established the first Islamic State in Medina with a distinct structure (ajhizaat) that continued with its pillars until 1924. The main elements (jihaz) of this structure must be implemented because they are hukm shari and not styles (usloob) or means (waseela). We can see from the seerah how the Messenger ﷺ trained the sahaba in all aspects of ruling so they could continue on this method after his ﷺ death. The army is one of the jihaz or organisations of the state. The Messenger ﷺ was the commander-in-chief so he organised the army and appointed all its commanders. He ﷺ led many of the battles directly which are known as a ghazwa while also appointing commanders of other units known as a sariya. The graphics below provide an insight in to this organisation and some key observations will be made at the end.
BY ABU YUSUF الٓمٓ غُلِبَتِ ٱلرُّومُ “Alif Lam Mim. The Romans have been defeated” (Ar-Rum, 30:1-2) Most commentators of the Qur’an when explaining this verse mention that the Muslims were hoping for the Romans to be victorious over the Persians, because the Romans were people of the Book whereas the Persians were mushrikeen like Quraish.
From the first pledge of Al-Aqaba to the first naval expedition, a lifelong leader who Umar said, “is equivalent to 1000 men” وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ “And those in front–ahead indeed!” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: أَصْحَابِي كَالنُّجُومِ بِأَيِّهِمْ اقْتَدَيْتُمْ اهْتَدَيْتُمْ “My companions are like stars, whichever of them you use as a guide, you will be rightly guided.” The sahaba were the best generation and their diverse lives need to be studied so we can take lessons from them. Whichever characteristic we want to emulate we will find it exemplified in the sahaba. They hold qualities of bravery, chivalry, knowledge, sacrifice and leadership because they were trained by the best human being and master of the Prophets, Muhammad ﷺ. Biography of Ubaadah ibn As-Saamit Profile Married to Umm Haram, the Prophet’s ﷺ maternal aunt. A senior sahaba and one of the Naqibs of the Ansar so is included in the words of the Messenger ﷺ, “If the Ansar took their way through a valley or a mountain pass, I would take Ansar’s valley. And but …
BY ABU YUSUF A podcast on the recent killing of George Floyd by police officers in America and the ensuing protests.
BY ERHAN AFYONCU This has been reproduced from Daily Sabah During the tenure of Şeyhülislam Musa Kazım Efendi in the Second Constitutional Period (II Meşrutiyet), the Qadi of Istanbul and a fatwa consultant (fetva emini) came on the 28th day of the month of Ramadan to inform that a witness sighted the new crescent moon, marking the end of Ramadan.
The bay’a (pledge of allegiance) is a ruling contract that governs the relationship between the Muslims and the head of the Islamic State. This is shown in the sunnah where the Messenger of Allah ﷺ took bay’a on ruling not belief because bay’a was only taken from mature Muslims.
by Ustadh Abu Yusuf An audio series explaining Surah al-Fatiha
George Hourani, a maritime historian who has researched the early Muslim navy discusses “the problem of the earliest Arab ventures on the Mediterranean: how could they be successfully carried out in such a surprisingly short time?