The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ established the first Islamic State in Medina with a distinct structure (ajhizaat) that continued with its pillars until 1924. The main elements (jihaz) of this structure must be implemented because they are hukm shari and not styles (usloob) or means (waseela). We can see from the seerah how the Messenger ﷺ trained the sahaba in all aspects of ruling so they could continue on this method after his ﷺ death. The army is one of the jihaz or organisations of the state. The Messenger ﷺ was the commander-in-chief so he organised the army and appointed all its commanders. He ﷺ led many of the battles directly which are known as a ghazwa while also appointing commanders of other units known as a sariya. The graphics below provide an insight in to this organisation and some key observations will be made at the end.
An infographic depicting the history of the Islamic civilization. This has been reproduced from Hizb ut-Tahrir Britain.
This infographic charts the history of Islam in Spain.
This organisation chart depicts the structure of the Khilafah (Caliphate) and the inter-communication between the different posts in the state. It is translated from the Arabic organisation chart which can be viewed on the website khilafah.net
Here is an organisation chart depicting the structure of the Khilafah (Caliphate) in Arabic. A complete overview of the Khilafah in the Arabic language is available on the website khilafah.net
There is no dispute that the burial of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the best man who ever lived and greatest of all the prophets, was delayed. However, confusion may arise over the reasons for this delay and how to view the companions’s actions who collectively consented to this delay. This question is discussed in detail in the article Why was Prophet Muhammad’s ﷺ burial delayed?
This infographic is a summary of the branches of government below: Executive Branch of the Caliphate How are laws made in the Caliphate? House of Representatives (Majlis ul-Ummah) The Caliphate’s Judiciary
The vast territories which the Islamic State rules over are divided up in to administrative units to ease in the task of ruling. The top level division is The Province (Wiliyah) which is headed by a Governor (Wali). The Province is divided in to Districts (I’mala) which are headed by a Mayor (‘Amil). The District is sub-divided in to Cities (Qasabah) headed by a Chief Executive (Mudeer). The City is further divided in to Neighbourhoods or Quarters (Hayy) each headed by a Director (Mudeer). Traditionally a Neighbourhood consisted of 40 houses.
Please read the article How are laws made in the Caliphate? for a detailed account of the lawmaking process in the Islamic State.