Author: islamciv

Migration to Abyssinia: Fleeing persecution or searching for a base for Islam?

This has been reproduced from Dr As-Sallabi’s seerah book The Noble life of the Prophet ﷺ. Scholars have mentioned various reasons that prompted the Prophet’s ﷺ Companions to migrate to Abyssinia. One reason was that they felt it necessary to flee with their religion, fearing that constant torture might tempt them to apostatize. Ibn Ishaaq said, “At that point in time, some Muslims from the Prophet’s ﷺ Companions went to Abyssinia, fearing temptation and fleeing towards Allah M with their religion.”[1]

Islamic History Quiz 1 Answers

Here are the answers to the 50 questions from Islamic History Quiz 1. They can be downloaded as a printable pdf. Islamic History Quiz 1 QUESTIONS web Islamic History Quiz 1 QUESTIONS pdf Islamic History Quiz 1 ANSWERS pdf

Islamic History Quiz 1

Here are 50 questions on various aspects of our great Islamic civilisation. They can be downloaded as a printable pdf along with the answers at the links below. Islamic History Quiz 1 QUESTIONS pdf Islamic History Quiz 1 ANSWERS pdf Islamic History Quiz 1 ANSWERS web

Conditions of the Caliph: Why only a Muslim Caliph?

The Khilafah (Caliphate) is an ideological Islamic State where the Islamic ‘aqeeda (belief) is the basis of the state, its institutions, systems and societal relationships. There is no separation between religion and politics in Islam as we find in the west. The Khilafah’s strength depends directly on the strength of the ideology within the state. This means those in ruling positions must be people who will work to protect, implement and propagate the deen of Islam, so the state becomes a beacon of high values, and a leading nation in the world. Only someone who believes in the ideology of the state i.e. Islam could do this, which means those in ruling positions must be Muslim. The Islamic State is no different to any ideological state within the world today. America or Western Europe for example would never accept a Muslim or Communist as President or Prime Minister. The fact that former US President Barack Obama had to repeatedly deny he is a secret Muslim is clear evidence of this. Muhammad Asad says, “One cannot …

Conditions of the Caliph

There is consensus (ijma) among the scholars on the pillars (arkan) that someone must possess to take up the post of Khaleefah. However, there are differences of opinion (ikhtilaaf), on some of the other conditions (shuroot) such as being from Quraysh, a mujtahid (able to perform ijtihad) and brave. The contractual conditions must have a shar’a daleel (divine evidence) from the divine text (Qur’an and Sunnah). Imam Ghazali (1058-1111) says, “Conditions for the Imamate must be proved, and proof is either a text from the Trustee of the Law, or a reasoning about the benefit (maslaha) for which the Imamate is sought. The only text is that about descent from Quraysh. The other conditions are from necessity and needed for the purpose of the Imamate.”[1] Before discussing the opinions of the classical scholars concerning the contractual conditions of a Khaleefah, we need to understand the time period they lived in. Only then can we begin to appreciate why they emphasised certain conditions over others, and why they legitimised certain abnormal situations, such as the Khaleefah …

Is the bay’ah a “social contract”?

A “social contract, in political philosophy, is an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled or between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each.”[1] While on the surface, this seems to apply to the bay’ah contract, as Ulrika Martensson has mentioned[2], the “social contract” is not in line with Islamic thought because the premise in the “social contract” is that man is sovereign (Rouseau), whereas in Islam the sharia is sovereign.[3] Shahrough Akhavi elaborates on this point: “Although social-contract theorists differ on a number of points, they concur that human beings choose to form associations to promote their interests. An important corollary is that tension exists between the individual’s inherent independence and freedom and the authority to which she or he must submit to achieve compliance with the goals of the contract. Occasionally, a theorist discusses God in the overall scheme of things, but the conception is deistic, so that the God who created the world does not intervene in its operation. For the rest, contractarian theories privilege …

Contracts in Islam

Wael b. Hallaq says, “In fiqh, contracts do not stand as a separate category, in the manner, say, American or French law articulates them in textbooks and treatises. Rather, Islamic conceptions of contract are implicit in juristic discussions pertaining to pecuniary and commercial transactions, among others. They are constituted by three essential elements (arkān; sing. rukn), namely: (a) the parties; (b) the form (ṣīgha) of offer and acceptance; and (c) the object, or subject-matter. (a) The contracting parties: A person qualified to enter into a contract on behalf of oneself or another must be of major age (bāligh) and have attained rushd, namely, the capacity to behave in a responsible and constructive manner (muṣliḥan), and without this capacity being subject to interdiction (ḥajr). Minors and the insane cannot enter into a contract without a guardian acting in their interest, except for discerning minors (mumayyiz) who can, inter alia, receive gifts and be the beneficiaries of a waqf. (b) Offer and acceptance (ījāb and qabūl): The majority of jurists associate offer with the owner (mālik) of the object, and acceptance with the party to whom ownership or …

What is the Bay’ah?

The bay’ah or pledge of allegiance, is a ruling contract which governs the relationship between Muslims and the Islamic state. For those Muslims living under the authority of the state, the bay’ah is their citizenship contract with its ruler – the Khaleefah. The bay’ah is the method of appointing the Khaleefah and legitimising his rule. It must be given with the consent of the ummah, who are free to choose whomever they wish to rule them, within the boundaries of the sharia rules. If the bay’ah and its conditions are absent, then the Khaleefah has no authority to rule and will be considered a usurper. From the time of Abu Bakr to the last Khaleefah Abdul-Majed II, the bay’ah was always present and legally convened, albeit misapplied for much of Islamic history. If we look back to Islamic history, most of the major political problems and fitan (tribulations) that occurred, can be traced back in some way or the other to the misapplication of the bay’ah. It’s the misapplication of the bay’ah that distinguishes a …