Author: islamciv

The Beginning of Hereditary Rule in the Caliphate

Hereditary Rule started from the time of Mu’awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan (41H/661CE – 60H/680CE) when he was Khaleefah, so we will discuss some key events concerning his rule in order to fully understand why he embarked on this course of action. This is an extract from the article Part 2: Bay’a in Islamic History – The Umayyad Khilafah The Civil War between Mu’awiyah and Ali Disputes broke out many times throughout the Khilafah’s 1300-year history over who should govern the state. One thing remained constant however and that was the bay’a. No Khaleefah ever came to power without the bay’a, and this method of appointing the ruler continued until 1924. During the civil war between Mu’awiya and Ali, Mu’awiya never claimed the Khilafah for himself or took the bay’a for himself. Rather he made his bay’a conditional on Ali handing over Uthman’s assassins which Ali was unable to fulfil at that time. Abu Muslim Al-Khawlani and a group of people said to Mu’awiyah: “Do you disagree with Ali or are you like him?” So Mu’awiyah said: …

Was Yazid a Legitimate Caliph?

This is an extract from the article Part 2: Bay’a in Islamic History – The Umayyad Khilafah There is ikhtilaaf (difference of opinion) among the ulema on Yazid’s legitimacy. Many scholars accept he was a legitimate Khaleefah such as Al-Dhahabi, but that he was sinful and blameworthy for the oppression and persecution he committed against the sahaba, and the murder of al-Hussain and his family. Others such as ibn al-Jawzi reject his legitimacy and call him a usurper, because he never had a legally convened bay’a that was given through free choice and consent by the majority of the Ahlul hali wal-aqd (political representatives of the ummah). Al-Dhahabi says, “(Yazid) he was the commander of that army during the campaign against Constantinople, among which were people such as Abu Ayyoob al-Ansaari. Yazid was appointed by his father as his heir, so he took power after his father died in Rajab 60 AH at the age of thirty-three, but his reign lasted for less than four years. Yazid is one of those whom we neither curse …

99% of Afghanistan wants sharia

The propaganda campaign being waged against the Taliban after America’s withdrawal has reached dizzying heights. Fake news of a woman being set on fire for bad cooking, and sex-slaves being transported in coffins have all appeared in the mainstream western media.

INFOGRAPHIC: Expansion of the Islamic State

An infographic depicting the expansion of the Islamic state from 622 -750CE, 1-132AH. Please note that square miles in the infographic are an approximation and for illustrative purposes only. Even if accurate figures were available this would not change the line graph. The main points to note from this infographic are as follows. Allah refers to the Treaty of Hudaibiyah which was signed in 6AH as a ‘clear victory’. إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا “Indeed, We have granted you a clear victory” (Al-Fath, 48:1) After the signing of this treaty with Quraish the Islamic conquests took off until the entire Arabian Peninsula was under Islamic rule within a few years. 2. When Abu Bakr was elected Caliph, the majority of the Arab tribes had apostatised or rebelled against the Islamic State. Abu Bakr then launched a campaign to bring all the rebellious regions back under Islamic rule. After the Ridda Wars the army was redeployed to start the expansion in to Iraq and Syria. This is why Abu Hurairah said, “By the One Whom there …

Tipu Sultan seeks legitimacy from the Ottoman Caliph

Tipu Sultan, was ruler of Mysore based in South India from 1782 to 1799. In 1784 Tipu Sultan sent Osman Khan to Constantinople to find out whether an embassy to the Ottoman Government would be fruitful. Tipu decided to send an embassy to Constantinople in order to secure confirmation of his title to the throne of Mysore from the Ottoman Caliph. The idea of securing an investiture from the Caliph was no innovation on the part of Tipu. With the exception of the Mughal Emperors who regarded themselves as Caliphs [sic] in their kingdom in their own right, a number of Muslim rulers of India had secured confirmation of their title to the throne from the then ruling Caliph. Thus Iltutmush and Mahmud of Ghazna had obtained their investiture from the Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad, while Muhammad b. Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq and Mahmud of Malwa had secured it from the Abbasid Caliphs of Egypt. Now that the Caliphate had become vested in the Ottoman dynasty, Tipu wanted to obtain his investiture from the Ottoman …

Makkan Period: The Final Phase

Download the book Makkan Period: The Final Phase The Makkan Period of the Prophet’s ﷺ mission followed a clear and distinct path in pursuit of establishing Islam. This was finally achieved after 13 gruelling years in Makkah where the Prophet ﷺ and sahaba faced torture, propaganda and boycott by the Quraysh trying to stop the daw’ah and the victory of Islam. The final culmination of the Makkan period was the Hijra to Madeenah and the establishment of the first Islamic State.