After the liberation of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453, Jewish refugees from all over Europe were encouraged to settle in the country and to take advantage of the liberal treatment accorded them by the Sultan. When the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid heard about the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by King Ferdinand, he said: “Can you call such a king wise and intelligent? He is impoverishing his country and enriching my kingdom.”
At least 29 people have been killed in a blast inside the Coptic church of Marjeres in the Egyptian city of Tanta. A second blast later at a church in Alexandria killed 18 more. This is not the first bombing of Copts in recent years. Back in January 2011 another Egyptian church was bombed in Alexandria. In response we published an article Egypt’s Copts need the Caliphate which covered a number of points related to how Islam orders the good treatment of dhimmi (non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic State) and prescribes severe punishment for those who harm them.
Slavery does not exist today and a future Caliphate would not attempt to re-introduce it as some misguided people have claimed. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ came to free human beings from slavery to other human beings, so they become slaves of Allah alone. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Whichever man frees a Muslim man, Allah ta’ala will liberate for each of his organ an organ from the Fire” (Agreed Upon).
We have taken up this issue for the purpose of presenting the point of view of Ash-Sheikh Muhammad Abi Zahrah (Rahimahullah) in regards to generalising or extending the Fareedah (obligation) of Az-Zakaah upon non-Muslims in the same way that it is obligatory upon Muslims. This is as a substitute for the Jizyah that is obligatory upon them.
Before I respond to this question it is necessary to mention the consequences of some hasty answers to this subject. These answers can lead to dangerous or serious ramifications that cause Muslims problems that they are not ready to face at the present time. I say: Those who give Shar’iyah Fatawaa (verdicts) in relation to the Ahlu-dh-Dhimmah today and even those who take up arms towards the Muslims, are obliged to the think on the consequences of giving hasty answers. They must think long and hard about the present reality and think long and hard about the Nusoos (texts) that relate to our current time and the compatibility of these texts upon the reality that we are suffering. The Fatwaa (verdict) follows this process and then the issuing of the Hukm.
In answer to this they remain upon the status of being Ahlu-dh-Dhimmah even if the Islamic State is no longer present and there is no Imaam for the Muslims in existence. This is because the ‘Aqd (contract) of the Dhimmah that was contracted with their predecessors is a permanent contract that applies upon them and those that came after them as long as a Dhimmi remains and however much time passes.
The definition of Ahlu-dh-Dhimmah Ibn ul-Qayyim defined the Ahlu-dh-Dhimmah in his presentation of the different categories of Kuffaar (disbelievers) just as he defined each of those who have an ‘Ahd (covenant) from amongst the disbelievers and this was so as to distinguish the Ahlu-dh-Dhimmah from other than them. He said: