Here are the answers to the 50 questions from Islamic History Quiz 1. They can be downloaded as a printable pdf.
1- Who was the first Muslim leader to give free health care to his citizens?
a. Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq
b. Umar ibn al-Khattab
c. Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
d. Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz
Concept: Islam was 1400 years ahead of the west in its high values
Explanation: “In healthcare, the Messenger of Allah ﷺ was given a doctor as a gift, but he assigned him to Muslims. The fact that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ received a gift and he did not use it, nor take it, rather he assigned it to the Muslims is evidence that healthcare is one of the interests of Muslims.”
When Ubayy bin Ka’b fell sick, the Prophet ﷺ sent a doctor to him who cauterized him on his arm vein.
2- Which Islamic ruling dynasty was founded by the son of Ertuğrul?
Concept: Highlighting the importance of the Ottomans, the seat of the last Islamic Caliphate.
Explanation: The son of Ertuğrul is Uthman Ghazi of which all Ottoman (Uthmani) Sultans were descendants.
3- Which prophet was thrown in a well as a young man, sold as a slave, falsely accused, imprisoned and then became a high official (treasurer) in Egypt?
a. Musa (as)
b. Yusuf (as)
c. Salih (as)
d. Yaqub (as)
Concept: Allah can transform the fortunes of an individual and society if He so wills
Allah (Most High) says:
وَقَالَ ٱلْمَلِكُ ٱئْتُونِى بِهِۦٓ أَسْتَخْلِصْهُ لِنَفْسِى ۖ فَلَمَّا كَلَّمَهُۥ قَالَ إِنَّكَ ٱلْيَوْمَ لَدَيْنَا مَكِينٌ أَمِينٌۭ
قَالَ ٱجْعَلْنِى عَلَىٰ خَزَآئِنِ ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ إِنِّى حَفِيظٌ عَلِيمٌۭ
The King said, ‘Bring him to me straight away! so I may draw him very close to me.’ When he had spoken with him, he declared, ‘Today you are trusted, established in our sight.’ He said, ‘Entrust the country’s stores to me. In truth I am a knowing guardian.’
4- Who did the Prophet ﷺ say was going to rule after him instead of Prophets?
Concept: The Islamic system continued via the Caliphate for 1300 years
Explanation: The Prophet ﷺ said, “The prophets ruled over the children of Israel, whenever a prophet died another prophet succeeded him, but there will be no prophet after me. There will soon be Caliphs and they will number many.” They asked; “What then do you order us?” He said: “Fulfil the bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) to them, one after the other, and give them their dues for Allah will verily account them about what he entrusted them with.”
5- When Imam Ali (ra) brought a Jew to court accusing him of stealing his armour, who did the Qadi rule in favour of?
a. Imam Ali
b. The Jew
Concept: The judiciary in an Islamic State is decisionally independent, and no one is above the law including the Caliph
Explanation: The Qadi Shurayh said: When Ali was setting out to Siffin (for battle), he found that he was missing a coat of armour of his. When the war was over and he returned to Kufah (Caliphate capital), he came across the armour in the hands of a Jew. He said to the Jew, “The armour is mine; I have not sold it or given it away.” The Jew said, “It is my armour and it is in my hand.” He said, “Let us go to the Qadi.” … Shurayh said, “Speak Amir al-Mu’mineen (leader of the believers).” He said, “Yes. This armour which the Jew has is my armour; I did not sell it nor did I give it away.” Shurayh said, “What do you say Jew?” He said, “It is my armour and it is in my possession.” Shurayh said, “Do you have any evidence Amir al-Mu’mineen?” He said, “Yes. Qanbar and Hasan (Ali’s son) will witness that the armour is mine.” Shurayh said, “A son’s witness is not acceptable on behalf of his father.” Ali said, “A man from the Garden (referring to Hasan), and his testimony is not acceptable? I heard the Prophet ﷺ saying, ‘Al-Hasan and al-Hussein are the two lords of the youth of the people of the Garden.’” The Jew said, “The Amir al-Mumineen brought me before his Qadi, and his Qadi gave judgement against him. I witness that this is the truth, and I witness that there is no god but Allah and I witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and that the armour is your armour.”
6- Under which Umayyad Caliph was poverty eradicated in North Africa?
a. Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufyan
b. Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz
c. Al-Walid ibn Abdul-Malik
d. Marwan II
Concept: If the Islamic economic system is applied correctly, it can lead to poverty being minimised, if not eradicated in some regions
Explanation: Umar bin Abdul-Aziz is known as a mujaddid (reformer) who enacted a number of economic reforms particular around taxation and trade. He abolished un-Islamic taxes and restored confiscated land to their previous owners and removed all unjust governors which stablished the state. This led to immense economic growth throughout the state. The consequences of this are that during his era a man would pay his Zakat but there was nobody eligible to receive it even in the traditionally poor areas of Afrique (North Africa).
7- Which Abbasid Caliph sent an army to protect one Muslim woman who was abused by the Romans?
b. Harun al-Rashid
Concept: A true Islamic government fights to protect the honour of women
Explanation: In 837 CE, Theophilos set out from Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) with an army of 100,000 and crossed into Muslim territory in northern Mesopotamia, where he attacked and destroyed the Muslim city of Zibatrah and Malatya, where they mutilated a number of the men by pulling out their eyes and cutting off their noses. Fleeing refugees made their way to Samarra where they spoke of the horror of the attack, and that on the day the Byzantines conquered Zibatrah, a Muslim woman who was taken captive cried out: “Wā Mu’tasimā!” (Help, O Mu‘tasim!)
It is stated that when the news reached Mu’tasim, he was drinking water from a cup and he immediately put the cup down and ordered the adhān to be called to signify an emergency. When all the people assembled, Mu’tasim asked: “Which place in the Byzantine lands is the most impregnable and securely fortified?” He was told: “Ammuriyyah (Amorium), no Muslim has ever made an attempt upon it since the coming of Islam; it is the very heart and core of Byzantium. In the view of the Byzantines, it is even more exalted than Constantinople”.
And so Mu‘tasim decided that he would attack Ammuriyyah and it has been mentioned that he equipped himself in a manner that no previous caliph had done before. So large was the army which he assembled for this task, that when the head of the army reached Ammuriyyah, the tail end of the army was still in Samarra.
Mu’tasim and his army entered Ammuriyyah on the 17th of Ramadān, 223 AH (August 12th, 838 CE), the city was razed to the ground and the Muslim prisoners including the woman who cried out for Mu’tasim were freed by Mu’tasim himself. The Byzantine chronicler Theophanes Continuatus mentions 70,000 dead. Among the spoils taken were the massive iron doors of the city, which Mu’tasim transported to Samarra, where they were installed at the entrance of his palace.
8- During the Middle Ages what was the main language of science, medicine and mathematics?
a. Middle English
Concept: Islam never had a conflict with science like the Christian Church did
Explanation: The numerals used in Britain and Europe are called Arabic numerals because they were introduced from North Africa by Muslims in the 10th century. This is because Arabic was the language of Mathematics at that time, building on that developed by the Ancient Greeks. Algebra comes from the title of a maths book “Ilm al-jabr wa l-muqābala” (The Science of Restoring and Balancing) written by al-Khwarizmi, a Persian Muslim mathematician in the 9th century CE.
9- The Prophet ﷺ said, “Verily you shall conquer Constantinople. What a wonderful leader will her leader be, and what a wonderful army will that army be!” Which Ottoman Sultan fulfilled this promise?
b. Abdul-Hamid II
c. Murad II
d. Mehmed II
Concept: The Ottomans reignited the Islamic conquests after hundreds of years of decline
Explanation: Sultan Mehmed II or al-Fatih (The Opener) as he became known, opened Constantinople in 1453 when he was only 21 years old. The Prophet ﷺ said, “The example of my ummah is like the rain. It is not known whether the initial part or the latter part is good.”
10- Which Islamic Sultanate gave Jewish refugees sanctuary after fleeing the Spanish inquisition?
a. Ottoman Sultanate
b. Delhi Sultanate
c. Mali Sultanate
d. Seljuk Sultanate
Concept: Islam does not oppress non-Muslims
Explanation: When the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II heard about the expulsion of the Jews from Spain by King Ferdinand in 1492, he said: “Can you call such a king wise and intelligent? He is impoverishing his country and enriching my kingdom.”
After the liberation of Constantinople by the Ottomans in 1453, Jewish refugees from all over Europe were encouraged to settle in the country and to take advantage of the liberal treatment accorded them by the Sultan.
Hans Dernschwam, a travelling agent of the Fugger banking house, describes the Jews in Turkey in his travel diary: “Many Marranos – that is Jews who turned Christian, as in Spain or voluntarily became Christians in other places – all come to Turkey and become Jews again. The Jews of Constantinople also have a printing press and print many rare books. They have goldsmiths, lapidaries (someone who cuts gems), painters, tailors, butchers, druggists, physicians, surgeons, cloth-weavers, wound-surgeons, barbers, mirror-makers, dyers, silk-workers, gold-washers, refiners of ores, assayers (tests metal for purity), engravers …”
Compare this to how Britain and Europe views immigrants today. Not as people who can contribute to the society and economy but scroungers and criminals to be sent off to Rwanda.
11- Despite their paralyzing grief and shock, what was the main focus of the senior sahabah on the day the Prophet ﷺ passed away?
a. Digging the grave
b. Washing his ﷺ body
c. Electing a Caliph
d. The funeral prayer
Concept: In the Fard al-Kifayah (collective obligations) appointing a Khaleefah is the priority over all others.
Explanation: When Sa’eed ibn Zaid was asked, “When was Abu Bakr confirmed by the people?” he said, “The day on which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ died; they disliked for even a part of a day to pass by without them being united as a group (with a leader to rule over them).”
Al-Haythami (d.1405CE) said, “It is known that the Sahabah consented that selecting the Imam after the end of the era of Prophethood was an obligation (Wajib). Indeed they made it more important than the other obligations whilst they were busy with it over the burial of the Prophet.”
12- Which Ottoman Caliph gave aid to the Irish during the famine of 1845?
a. Abdul-Mejid I
b. Abdul-Hamid II
c. Mehmed III
d. Selim III
Concept: The Islamic State has an ethical foreign policy
Explanation: Sultan Abdul-Majeed who was only 24 years old in 1847 personally offered £10,000 in aid to Ireland. However, British diplomats advised him that it would be offensive for anyone to offer more than Queen Victoria, who had only donated £2,000. It was suggested that he should donate half of that amount, so he gave £1,000.
Reverend Henry Christmas wrote in 1853 about this incident. ‘One or two anecdotes will put his character in its true light. During the year of famine in Ireland, the Sultan heard of the distress existing in that unhappy country; he immediately conveyed to the British ambassador his desire to aid in its relief, and tendered for that purpose a large sum of money.
It was intimated to him that it was thought right to limit the sum subscribed by the Queen, and a larger amount could not therefore be received from his highness. He at once acquiesced in the propriety of his resolution, and with many expressions of benevolent sympathy, sent the greatest admissible subscription. It is well known that his own personal feeling dictated the noble reply of the divan to the threatening demands of Austria and Russia for the extradition of the Polish and Hungarian refugees.
“I am not ignorant,” was his reply, “of the power of those empires, nor of the ulterior measures to which their intimations point; but I am compelled by my religion to observe the laws of hospitality; and I believe that the sense and good feeling of Europe will not allow my government to be drawn into a ruinous war, because I resolve strictly and solemnly to adhere to them.”
This is the true spirit of Christianity, and there is more it in the Mohammedan Sultan of Turkey, than in any or all of the Christian princes of Eastern Europe.’
13- What shape is the ‘Dome of the Rock’?
Concept: Remembering the third holiest place in Islam
Explanation: The ‘Dome of the Rock’ masjid is the oldest mosque which still has its original structure intact. It forms part of the Masjid al-Aqsa complex.
The Prophet ﷺ said, “Do not undertake a religious journey except to three mosques: Al-Masjid Al-Haram (Makkah), the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ (Madinah), and Masjid Al-Aqsa (Jerusalem).”
14- Which castle is built in the shape of the Arabic word Muhammad when viewed from above?
a. Windsor Castle
b. Rumeli Castle
c. Zarb Castle
d. Al-Arish castle
Concept: ‘Necessity is the mother of invention’. Achieving results requires a plan
Explanation: To prevent ships passing through the Bosporus to Constantinople from the Black Sea, Mehmed II had to build a fortress on the Bosporus.
In 1452 with help of thousands of masons and workers he completed what is known as Rumelihisarı or the Roumeli Hissar Castle in record time, 4 months and 16 days!
This castle was built in the shape of the Arabic script for Muhammad (محمد) in honour or the Messenger ﷺ, with the meems representing the castle towers.
15- Which Mongol Khanate did NOT embrace Islam?
a. Golden Hordes in the Northeast
b. Great Khanate in China
c. Ilkhanate in the Southeast and Persia
d. Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia
Concept: The occupiers adopt the religion and ideology of the occupied
Explanation: The Mongol armies wreacked havoc on the Muslim world. Hulagu Khan from the Ilkhanate ransacked Baghdad, and killed the last Abbasid Caliph residing there in 1258CE. The power of Islamic thought is such that the next generations of his Ilkhanate adopted Islam, and in fact three out of the four Khanates all became Muslim.
16- On the reverse of the gold dinar minted by Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan in 77H, are some verses from the Holy Qur’an. From which surah are these verses?
Concept: Foreign policy of the Islamic State is daw’ah
Explanation: On the coins we find the central inscription is “Allah is one, Allah is the eternal, He did not beget and He was not begotten”. This is in response to the Byzantine coins depicting an image of Jesus (as) on their coins. Despite ongoing hostilities between the Byzantines and the Islamic State, they were both major trading partners, and so inevitably their currency would find its way in to circulation in both states. Since the Islamic state was the centre of international trade, the Islamic coins soon found their way in to the heart of Europe. In the late 1930s, an Arabic silver dirham dating from the time of the Umayyad Khaleefah Marwān II (r. 744-50) was found in the village of Potoci in modern day Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Inscription position: reverse
Central inscription: Allah is one, Allah is the eternal, He did not beget and He was not begotten
Marginal inscription: In the name of Allah, this dinar was struck in the year 77.
17- Which Caliph established the first navy in Islam?
a. Abdul-Hamid II
b. Umar ibn al-Khattab
c. Harun al-Rashid
d. Uthman bin Affan
Concept: The power of a unified state
Explanation: George Hourani, a maritime historian who has researched the early Muslim navy discusses “the problem of the earliest Arab ventures on the Mediterranean: how could they be successfully carried out in such a surprisingly short time? The decisive event is the battle of Dhaat al-Sawaari (Battle of the Masts). To fight a naval battle, many resources were required: naval bases, including docks, shipbuilding yards, building materials and skilled shipbuilders; [and] warships with their complements of trained sailors, marines and officers.”
This achievement would not have been possible without unity and all elements of the state including the governors of Ash-Sham and Egypt cooperating. Wood (cedar) was in Ash-Sham and the shipbuilders (Copts) were in Alexandria, Egypt.
18- What was the railway called which ran from Damascus to Medina in 1908?
a. Orient Express
b. Medina railway
c. Hejaz railway
d. Damascus railway
Concept: A unified Islamic state looks after the interests of the Muslims in both world matters and rituals.
Explanation: Faced with growing disunity and discontentment with the Ottoman Caliphate, Sultan Abdul-Hamid II devised an ambitious plan to awaken the feelings of Islamic unity among the Ummah and strengthen the Caliphate’s authority over the Arab provinces. This plan was the building of a railroad from Damascus all the way to Medina for use by the pilgrims travelling for hajj that become known as the Hejaz Railroad. The project was started in 1900 and finally reached Medina in 1908 when the railroad officially opened.
Before the railroad the journey between Damascus and Medina usually took two months by camel caravan and was full of hardships. Since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, that moves each year, the hajj changes from season to season. Sometimes it meant travelling through the winter, enduring freezing temperatures or torrential rains. At the height of summer, it meant crossing scorching hot deserts. Towns and settlements were sparse and there were hostile tribes along the way.
With the introduction of the railroad the journey time for pilgrims was cut from two months to four days. The arduous journey of travelling by camel through the desert was replaced with a few days travelling in comfort on the train. The cost of the journey was reduced from £40 to just £3.50 for a train ticket.
19- What disease was eradicated by a ‘vaccine’ first developed by the Ottomans?
Concept: The Caliphate is a shining light for the world
Explanation: Ottomans used a primitive vaccine called va-riolation. This “va-iolation” or innoculation procedure involved administering powdered smallpox scabs or fluids taken from pustules of someone with smallpox, subcutaneously applied to the arms or legs of a healthy individual that had not been infected, through superficial scratches made in the skin. The inoculated person would then develop pustules identical to those naturally caused in people with smallpox, but the effects of the disease would lessen significantly. In two to four weeks’ time, the symptoms would disappear and the patient would recover, gaining immunity in the process.
The method of inoculation, which had been applied for centuries against smallpox in Ottoman lands, was observed by the wife of the British ambassador to Istanbul in 1721. Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, in a letter she wrote to her country, explained with astonishment that something called vaccination against smallpox was deployed in Istanbul. The letter stands as the oldest document proving vaccine production in the Ottoman Empire.
The British even used this cureless disease as a biological weapon against France and Native Americans in the 18th century. Historical records show they gave blankets and handkerchiefs that belonged to the victims of the disease to native tribes, deliberately infecting these communities.
20- According to the 2017 Pew Survey how many Muslims in Afghanistan wanted sharia as official law?
Concept: Failure of the ‘war on terror’
Explanation: The image portrayed when the Taliban took over in August 2021 was that the minority of Muslims fleeing Kabul out of a population of 4.3million, were not just fleeing the Taliban, but in fact fleeing Sharia law as Taslima Nasreen claimed.
The last Pew Survey in 2017 states that, “Nearly all Muslims in Afghanistan (99%) and most in Iraq (91%) and Pakistan (84%) support sharia law as official law.”
The crusade launched by George W. Bush known as the ‘war on terror’ was meant to reshape the Muslim world in to a secular-democratic world and the emergence of a ‘new middle east’ as Condoleezza Rice called it. This failed. In fact it was doomed to fail even before it got started, because the Haqq (truth) of Islam cannot be defeated by the Batil (falsehood) of western secular-liberalism. Allah confirms this natural law,
“Rather We hurl the haqq against the batil and it cuts right through it and it vanishes clean away!”
21- Which Ottoman Sultan slayed Vlad the Impaler (Dracula)?
a. Murad I
b. Ahmed I
c. Mehmed II
d. Bayezid II
Concept: The Islamic State will protect the Muslims’ blood, honour and property
Explanation: Vlad the Impaler (Dracula) was a 15th century ruler in Romania who slaughtered thousands of Muslims in his ‘war on terror’.
“I have killed men and women, old and young… We killed 23,884 Turks and Bulgarians without counting those whom we burned in their homes or whose heads were not cut by our soldiers….” (Vlad the Impaler in a letter to Matthias Corvinus bragging of his tyranny)
Mehmed Al-Fatih’s army defeated him in 1476.
22- Which country nicknamed the Ottoman Caliph Sulayman as “The Magnificent”?
Concept: The Islamic State’s influence in foreign affairs
Explanation: The Muslims knicknamed him Al-Kanuni for adopting many laws for organising the state, but France nicknamed him “Suleiman le Magnifique” and this spread throughout Europe. Why?
King Francis of France was captured and imprisoned in 1525 by Charles V of the Habsburgs during the Battle of Pavia in Northern Italy.
Sulayman wrote a letter to Charles V in Feb 1526 demanding the release of King Francis which happened in March 1526. The letter he wrote:
I who am the Sultan of Sultans, the sovereign of sovereigns, the dispenser of crowns to the monarchs on the face of the earth, the shadow of the God on Earth, the Sultan and sovereign lord of the Mediterranean Sea and of the Black Sea, of Rumelia and of Anatolia, of Karamania, of the land of Romans, of Dhulkadria, of Diyarbakir, of Kurdistan, of Azerbaijan, of Persia, of Damascus, of Aleppo, of Cairo, of Mecca, of Medina, of Jerusalem, of all Arabia, of Yemen and of many other lands which my noble fore-fathers and my glorious ancestors (may God light up their tombs!) conquered by the force of their arms and which my August Majesty has made subject to my flamboyant sword and my victorious blade, I, Sultan Suleiman Khan, son of Sultan Selim Khan, son of Sultan Bayezid Khan: To thee who art Francesco, king of the province of France …
You have sent to my Porte, refuge of sovereigns, a letter by the hand of your faithful servant Frangipani, and you have furthermore entrusted to him miscellaneous verbal communications.
You have informed me that the enemy has overrun your country and that you are at present in prison and a captive, and you have asked aid and succors for your deliverance. All this your saying having been set forth at the foot of my throne, which controls the world.
Your situation has gained my imperial understanding in every detail, and I have considered all of it. There is nothing astonishing in emperors being defeated and made captive. Take courage then, and be not dismayed. Our glorious predecessors and our illustrious ancestors (may God light up their tombs!) have never ceased to make war to repel the foe and conquer his lands. We ourselves have followed in their footsteps, and have at all times conquered provinces and citadels of great strength and difficult of approach. Night and day our horse is saddled and our saber is girt.
May the God on High promote righteousness! May whatsoever He will be accomplished! For the rest, question your ambassador and be informed. Know that it will be as said.
23- Who was the grandfather of ‘Isa (Jesus)?
Concept: Jesus (as) was a prophet of Islam
Allah (Most High) says:
“Remember when the wife of ‘Imraan said, ‘My Lord, I have pledged to You what is in my womb, devoting it to Your service. Please accept my prayer. You are the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.’
When she gave birth, she said, ‘My Lord! I have given birth to a girl’ – and Allah knew very well what she had given birth to, male and female are not the same – ‘and I have named her Maryam and placed her and her children in Your safekeeping from the accursed Shaytan.’”
24- Which Ottoman Caliph stopped France from staging Henri de Bornier’s blasphemous Mohamet play in 1890?
b. Abdul-Mejid I
c. Abdul-Hamid II
d. Murad IV
Concept: The Islamic State will protect the honour of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and all prophets
Explanation: “Bornier himself was the victim of blind and unreasoning Muslim prejudice in regard to his Mahomet. The play was being rehearsed in 1889 when a Turkish newspaper reproduced from a French journal the news of its forthcoming production. The French Foreign Ministry assured the Turkish ambassador in Paris, Es’at Pasha, that the play did not constitute an attack on the Prophet and on the cherished beliefs of the Muslims. Bornier pointed out that the Persian ta’ziyas or passion plays regularly depicted the death of Muhammad as well as those of the Shi’ite martyrs, and he offered to accept prohibition of his work’s being played in Algeria and Tunisia.
These arguments still failed to satisfy the Turkish authorities, and in 1890 the head of the government, Freycinet, banned the production of Mahomet in France, a prohibition which, it was reported, gave much pleasure to the Sultan Abd al-Hamid II. It must be admitted that Muslims would undeniably find offensive a play in which their Prophet killed himself because of a woman and because of inferiority feelings vis-a-vis Christianity, but there is no evidence that either the Turkish ambassador or the Sultan had seen the play, much less read it, when they first objected to it.
The French government’s surrender to this Turkish pressure was plausibly attributed by Martino to the contemporary political situation, for in 1889 the German Emperor William II was beginning his journey to Istanbul and the Near East, and France feared to do anything which might drive Turkey further into Germany’s arms; the susceptibilities of France’s numerous Muslim subjects in North Africa must also have been a consideration. Not till 1896 were excerpts from Mahomet presented to the public in a special arrangement for theatrical declamation. Since Bornier’s time, no major European dramatist seems to have essayed a play on the life of the Prophet.”
25- Who did Adam (as) gift 40 years of his life to?
a. Hawa’ (as)
b. Musa (as)
c. Dawud (as)
d. Yusuf (as)
Concept: Human beings are weak, needy and dependent and need God
Explanation: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “When Allah created Adam He wiped his back and every person that He created among his offspring until the Day of Resurrection fell out of his back. He placed a ray of light between the eyes of every person.
Then He showed them to Adam and he said: “O Lord! Who are these people?” He said: “These are your offspring.” He saw one of them whose ray between his eyes amazed him, so he said: “O Lord! Who is this?” He said: “This is a man from the latter nations of your offspring called Dawud.” He said: “Lord! How long did You make his lifespan?” He said: “Sixty years.” He said: “O Lord! Add forty years from my life to his.” So at the end of Adam’s life, the Angel of death of came to him, and he said: “Do I not have forty years remaining?” He said: “Did you not give them to your son Dawud?” He said: “Adam denied, so his offspring denied, and Adam forgot and his offspring forgot, and Adam sinned, so his offspring sinned.”
26- Which British overseas territory is named after Tariq bin Ziyad?
a. Turks and Caicos Islands
b. Cayman Islands
c. Falklands Islands
Concept: Islam once ruled Spain and is not a new or alien religion to Europe.
Explanation: In 711–718CE the general Tariq bin Ziyad crossed the Mediterranean and landed his army on a mountain which became known as Tariq’s Mountain جبل طارق which anglicised becomes Gibraltar. He crossed from Maghreb (Modern day Morocco).
27- Which country contains the largest Muslim population?
b. Saudi Arabia
Concept: Largest Muslim populations are outside Islam’s birth place
Explanation: Indonesia’s population is 276.4 million whereas Saudi Arabia’s population is 35.34 million. In the time of the sahaba, many Arab tribes migrated from the Arabian Peninsula and settled in the new towns of Basra and Kufa in Iraq, and also Khorasan (Iran, Afghanistan). It was the rapid conversion of Khorasan and Central Asia which provided the backbone of the Abbasid revolution in 750CE, led by the former slave Abu Muslim al-Khurasani on behalf of the Abbasids. Later the Turkic Muslims of Central Asia became the dominant force in Abbasid politics and in the 11th century the Turkic Sultanates were born which ruled the Muslim world until 1924.
28- Who was the first Muezzin in Islam?
a. Bilal ibn Rabah
b. Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq
c. Umar ibn al-Khattab
d. Ali ibn Abi Talib
Concept: Islam solved racism in the 7th century
Explanation: Islam transformed the lives of slaves.Bilal, a former black slave who converted to Islam in Makkah was elevated to one of the heroes and role models of the Muslim ummah. Millions of Muslims throughout history of all ethnicities have named their sons after him.
The west still has a problem with racism in the 21st century with non-whites still fighting for their rights which Islam resolved in the 7th century.
29- How many Muslims gave the second pledge of Al-Aqaba to the Prophet ﷺ?
Concept: Political participation for men and women established by the Prophet ﷺ
Explanation: 73 men and 2 women gave the pledge.
The names of those Ansar who gave bay’ah at the second pledge of al-Aqaba are etched in history as the first to support the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and pledge allegiance to him as the leader of the first Islamic State, an event which marks the beginning of the Hijri calendar in Islam.
Those who pledged did so not for any material benefit or position. They pledged their support in order to seek the pleasure of Allah (Most High) alone, which is why the Messenger ﷺ said to them, “And you will have Paradise.”
After the Messenger ﷺ arrived in Medina we continue to hear these names playing a key role in upholding the state and expanding it throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Those who lived after the Messenger ﷺ passed away, continued to play a prominent role in the state assisting the Rightly Guided Caliphs and later the Umayyads.
30- Who was the last Mughal Sultan of India?
a. Bahadur Shah II
b. Tipu Sultan
Concept: The parts of India under Islamic rule prospered. Hindus and their temples would not exist today if Muslims had perpetrated genocides that the Hindutiva today are advocating.
Explanation: “The last Mughal emperor (Sultan), Bahadur Shah II, also known as Zafar, died in a British prison in Burma in 1862. As the last of the dynastic line that extended back to the sixteenth century, he had in his earlier years presided over a culturally sophisticated court, but as the British East India Company extended its control over more of India, his rule was clearly coming to an end. Then the mutiny of the sepoys against their British officers led to the siege of Delhi, the establishment of direct British colonial rule, and the end of any pretensions of Zafar as emperor.”
31- What made the Christian Abyssinian Negus cry, when Ja’far ibn Abi Talib spoke with him?
a. Reciting Surah Al-Ikhlaas
b. Reciting the story of ‘Isa (as) where he spoke as an infant and announced his prophethood
c. Reciting Surah Al-Fil
d. Reciting the story of Musa (as) and the parting of the sea which drowned Pharaoh’s army
Concept: Daw’ah must be given with hikmah (wisdom).
Explanation: Allah (Most High) says,
“Oh you who believe! Have taqwa of Allah and speak words which hit the mark.”
“Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair admonition, and argue with them in the kindest way. Your Lord knows best who is misguided from His way. And He knows best who are guided.”
32- Which army general opened up India to Islam in 712CE and served as the first governor of Sindh?
a. Muhammad ibn al-Qasim
b. Qutayba ibn Muslim
c. Tariq bin Ziyad
d. Musa ibn Nusayr
Concept: Islam is part of India and has a glorious history there, despite the attempts by the Hindutiva to rewrite history.
Explanation: Muhammad bin Qasim was born around 695CE. He belonged to the Saqqafi tribe; that had originated from Taif in Arabia. He grew up in the care of his mother; he soon became a great asset to his uncle Muhammad Ibn Yusuf, the governor of Yemen. His judgment, potential and skills left many other officers and forced the ruler to appoint him in the state department. He was also a close relative of Hajjaj bin Yousuf, because of the influence of Hajjaj, the young Muhammad bin Qasim was appointed the governor of Persia while in his teens, and he crushed the rebellion in that region. There is also a popular tradition that presents him as the son-in-law of Hajjaj bin Yousuf. He conquered the Sindh and Punjab regions along the Indus River for the Umayyad Caliphate.
There are both long and short term causes for the conquest of india. Arabs had trade with India and Eastern Asia. The trade was carried through sea rout; the rout was unsafe due to the plunder of the Pirates of Sindh. The Arab rebels also get refuge in Sindh. Thus the Umayyad wanted to consolidate their rule and also to secure the trade rout. During Hajjaj’s governorship, the Mids of Debal (Pirates) plundered the gifts of Ceylon’s ruler to Hijjaj and attacked on ships of Arab that were carrying the orphans and widows of Muslim soldiers who died in Sri Lanka. Thus providing the Umayyad Caliphate the legitimate cause, that enabled them to gain a foothold in the Makran, and Sindh regions.
The Umayyad caliphate ordered Muhammad Bin Qasim to attack over Sindh. He led 6,000 Syrian cavalry and at the borders of Sindh he was joined by an advance guard and six thousand camel riders and with five catapults (Manjaniks). Muhammad Bin Qasim first captured Debal, from where the Arab army marched along the Indus. At Rohri he was met by Dahir’s forces. Dahir died in the battle, his forces were defeated and Muhammad bin Qasim took control of Sind. Mohammad Bin Qasim entered Daibul in 712 AD. As a result of his efforts, he succeeded in capturing Daibul. He continued his Victorious Progress in succession, Nirun, fortress (called Sikka), Brahmanabad, Alor, Multan and Gujrat. After the conquest of Multan, he carried his arms to the borders of Kigdom of Kashmir, but his dismissal stopped the further advance. Now Muslims were the masters of whole Sindh and a part of Punjab up to the borders of Kashmir in the north. After the conquest, he adopted a conciliatory policy, asking for acceptance of Muslim rule by the natives in return for non-interference in their religious and cultural practices. He also established peace with a strong taxation system. In return he provided the guaranty of security of life and property for the natives. Hajjaj died in 714. When Walid Bin Abdul Malik died, his younger brother Suleman succeeded as the Caliph. He was a bitter enemy of Hajjaj’s family. He recalled Mohammad Bin Qasim from Sindh, who obeyed the orders as the duty of a general. When he came back, he was put to death on 18th of July, 715CE at the age of twenty.
33- Which sahabi is buried in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople)?
a. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
b. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas
c. Khalid ibn al-Walid
d. Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah
Concept: The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic Empire (Sultanate)
Explanation: The famous sahabi Abu Ayyub al-Ansari was 98 years old but he still accompanied the expedition and he died and was buried at the walls of Constantinople.
Yazid ibn Muawiya who was the Corp Commander asked him, “Do you need anything, Abu Ayyub?” To which Abu Ayyub replied, “Convey my salaams to the Muslim armies and tell them, “Abu Ayyub urges you to penetrate deep into enemy territory, as far as you can go; and that you should carry him with you, and that you should bury me under your feet at the walls of Constantinople.” At this, he died. Yazid ordered the Muslim army to fulfil his request, and they pushed back the enemy’s forces until they reached the walls of Constantinople where Abu Ayyub was finally interred.
The mosque played a role in the coronation ceremony for new Ottoman Sultans, who came here – processing along the grand Cülus Yolu (Accession Way) – to be girded with the sword of Osman at the start of their reigns.
34- After the conquest of Makkah, did the Prophet ﷺ stay in his old house, in which he lived before the hijra?
Concept: The Muslims didn’t come as conquerers like the Romans and Persians, enslaving and exploiting the people. Rather they brought the people from darkness to light.
Explanation: Uqayl ibn Abi Talib (cousin of the Prophet ﷺ) had, according to the laws of Quraish, inherited the houses of his relatives that embraced Islam and emigrated. He had disposed of them and sold them, including the house of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. So Usama bin Zaid asked when they entered Makkah: “O Allah’s Messenger ﷺ! Where will we encamp tomorrow?” The Prophet ﷺ said, “But has Uqayl left for us any house to lodge in?” The Prophet ﷺ replied: “Tomorrow we will stay in the valley of Banu Kinanah, Muhassab where the Quraish swore an oath of disbelief.”
This means he ﷺ didn’t return to his old house or confiscate it, even though he was in authority over Makkah and had the full capability and power to do this. No one is above the law in Islam.
35- How did Salahuddin Ayyubi treat the defeated Christian Crusaders after he liberated Jerusalem in 1187?
a. Killed them
b. Released them so they could travel back to Europe
c. Imprisoned them
d. Ransomed them
Concept: High Islamic values during warfare
Explanation: When the Crusaders occupied Jerusalem 1099 during the First Crusade, they massacred so many Muslims and Eastern Christians that the blood ran shin-deep in the streets. Instead of enacting revenge Salahudeen showed the high Islamic values even during war and released the Christian crusaders back to Europe after the Battle of Hittin in 1187.
36- Which sahabi brought Islam to China and is buried in Guangzhou, China?
a. Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas
b. Abdullah ibn Umar
c. Khalid ibn Walid
d. Usama ibn Zayd
Concept: Islam is not a new or foreign religion to China. It is part of its long history and culture.
Explanation: In 651CE, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas was sent as an emissary toEmperor Gaozong, the Tang emperor by the Caliph Uthman bin Affan. The Tang Emperor ordered the construction of the Memorial mosque (Huaisheng Mosque) in Guangzhou, the first mosque in the country which survives to this day.
37- Which Muslim women founded the first degree-granting university in Fez, Morocco in 859CE?
a. Asma bint Abi Bakr
b. Fatima al-Fihri
c. Al-Shifa’ bint Abdullah.
d. Arwa bint al-Harith
Concept: Muslim women played a central role in Islamic education.
Explanation: University of al-Qarawiyyin was initially founded by Fatima al-Fihri as a mosque, and then became a centre of learning. The mother is the first teacher of the child, and women have played a central role in Islamic education.
38- During the conquest of Egypt (639-646CE) the daughter of the Egyptian ruler al-Muqawqis, whose name was Armanoosah was captured by the Muslim army. What did they do to her?
a. Enslave her
b. Ransom her
c. Imprison her
d. Free her
Concept: High Islamic values during warfare and Islam’s honourable treatment of women
Explanation: When Allah enabled the Muslims to conquer Bilbeis in Egypt, they found therein the daughter of the Egyptian ruler al-Muqawqis, whose name was Armanoosah. She was close to her father, but she was visiting the city of Bilbeis with her servant Barbara in an attempt to escape marriage to Constantine the son of Heraclius, whom she did not want to marry. When some of the Muslim army managed to capture Armanoosah, Amr ibn Al-As, the Amir of War in Egypt, gathered the Sahabah together and reminded them of the words of Allah: “Is there any reward for good other than good?”
Then he said: “Al-Muqawqis sent a gift to our Prophet; I think we should return his daughter to him, and all of her servants and entourage whom we have captured, and their wealth that we seized.” They agreed to that. So ‘Amr sent her back to her father with honour; along with all her jewels and male and female slaves. Her servant Barbara said to her during the journey: “0h my mistress, the Arabs are surrounding us on all sides.” Armanoosah said, “I feel that my life and my honour are safe among the tents of the Arabs, but I do not feel safe in the palace of my father.” When she reached her father, he was very pleased with her and the way that the Muslims had treated her.
39- In which city was the level of scholarship so high, that someone would have to go to Fez in Morocco first, to take prerequisite courses before they could study there?
Concept: Africa under Islam compared to Africa under colonial exploitation
Explanation: Timbuktu is in Mali. Today Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world but under Islam the Mali Sultanate was one of the richest places in the world. Its wealth came from gold, copper and salt mines. The 14th century ruler of Mali was Mansa Musa who is one of the wealthiest people to ever live. When he performed hajj he give away 30 tonnes (£1.3billion) of gold causing a ten year gold recession in the cities of Cairo, Medina, and Mecca.
Mali was also a centre of Islamic learning. In the early 1400s, ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Tamimi, travelled to Timbuktu, only to realize that the level of scholarship was so high he would have to go to Fez first to take prerequisite courses, before he could study there.
For centuries private households in Timbuktu have been preserving manuscripts detailing art, medicine, philosophy, and science, as well as copies of the Qur’an from the 13th century. These Timbuktu Manuscripts as they are officially known are said to number 700,000 and are the subject of many research projects by western universities and the UN.
This shows that pre-colonialism Africa under Islam was rich and highly educated, not the impoverished continent we see today.
40- Who wrote ‘The Canon of Medicine’ first published in 1025CE, and which became a standard textbook in medical schools throughout 18th century Europe?
c. Ibn Sina
Concept: Islam never had a conflict with science like the Christian Church did
Explanation: Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the West, was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age, and the father of early modern medicine. His monumental work Al-Qanun fi’l-tibb (The Canon of Medicine) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five volumes which he completed in 1025CE, and was still in use throughout 18th century in Europe, 700 years later.
Muslims were motivated to find cures to diseases by the hadith of the Prophet ﷺ, “There is a cure for every disease, and when the remedy is applied to the disease it is cured with the permission of Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.”
41- Why did the leaders of Quraysh decide to kill the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ after 13 years of allowing him to live in Makkah?
a. His ﷺ preaching to Islam
b. His ﷺ decision to make hijra to Medina and establish a state
c. The conversion of some powerful elites from Quraysh
d. Tribal rivalry
Concept: The Prophet ﷺ and sahaba were not fleeing persuction through the hijra, but rather to establish an Islamic State
Explanation: At the second pledge of Al-Aqaba, the Prophet’s ﷺ uncle Al-Abbas spoke first. “O you people of the Khazraj! (the Arabs used to call the Ansar Khazraj, whether from Khazraj or Aws). You all know the position that Muhammad holds among us. We have protected him from our people as much as we could. He is honoured and respected among his people. He refuses to join any party except you. So if you think you can carry out what you promise while inviting him to your town, and if you can defend him against the enemies, then assume the burden that you have taken. But if you are going to surrender him and betray him after having taken him away with you had better leave him now because he is respected and well defended in his own place.”
Al-Abbas made it clear that the Prophet ﷺ was still well-protected by Banu Hashim in Makkah, and he had no need to emigrate for his own safety. This is clear evidence that this second pledge was not an emigration or hijra for fleeing persecution. Rather this hijra was for establishing a new state.
Quraish became desperate after learning of the second pledge, and the migation of the sahaba from Makkah which had already started. If the Prophet ﷺ managed to migrate and establish the state in Madinah, it would not only threaten their summer trade caravans to Syria, but also begin to erode their long-held dominance in Arabia.
That afternoon or evening, delegates from all the Quraishi tribes gathered in their House of Assembly, Dar Al-Nadwa which acted like a parliament for them to discuss the next steps. This day is known as yawm al-zahma, ‘the day of the gathering’.
42- Islamic coins have been found by archaeologists as far away as Sweden, Britain, and China.
Concept: The Islamic Economic system was implemented after the Rightly Guided Caliphate
Explanation: The Islamic State has a bi-metallic currency based on gold and silver. This was first established by the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ in Madinah who made the state’s currency as the gold dinar and the silver dirham. The state had no ability at the time to mint its own currency so used the Roman Dinar and Persian Dirham. This continued throughout the Umayyad period until the Caliph Abdul-Malik ibn Marwan minted the first distinct Islamic currency in 74H.
Abdul-Malik was the first to mint distinct gold dinars and silver dirhams based on the weight that the Prophet ﷺ had established. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar who said, ‘The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “The weight is the weight of the people of Makkah, and the measure is the measure of the people of Madinah.”’ This shows that the Islamic economic system was implemented by Abdul-Malik.
43- What helped to guide the principals of Islamic merchants in the Middle Ages?
a. Arab traditions
b. Roman law
c. Persian law
d. The Qur’an
Concept: Earning halal wealth and seeking the material value, are not in conflict with Islam, as long as they are within the boundaries of the sharia rules
Explanation: Umar ibn Al-Khattab said, “No one of you should refrain from earning a living and say, ‘Oh Allah grant me provision,’ when he knows that the sky will not rain down gold and silver, and that Allah grants provision to people by means of one another.” Then he recited the verse:
“Then when the salat is finished spread through the earth and seek Allah’s bounty and remember Allah much so that hopefully you will be successful.”
44- During the Battle of Ahzab when the Muslims of Medina were facing annihilation by the mushrikeen, which three lands did the Messenger of Allah ﷺ predict the Muslims would conquer?
a. Ash-Sham, Central Asia, India
b. Ash-Sham, Persia, Yemen
c. Persia, Egypt, India
d. Ash-Sham, Persia, Central Asia
Concept: Islam will be victorious even if things look bleak.
Explanation: Al-Bara’ said, “On the Day of Al-Khandaq there stood a rock too resistant for our spades to break up. We therefore went to see the Messenger of Allah for advice. He took the spade, and struck the rock uttering, ‘Bismillah, Allahu Akbar the keys of Ash-Sham (geographical Syria) are mine, I swear by Allah, I can see its palaces at the moment.’ On the second strike he said; ‘Allahu Akbar, Persia is mine, I swear by Allah, I can now see the white palace of Madain.’ And for the third time he struck the rock, which turned into very small pieces, he said; ‘Allah is Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen, I swear by Allah, I can see the gates of San‘a while I am in my place’”
45- What did the son of Nuh (as) say would save him from the flood?
a. The Ark
Concept: Only Allah can protect you
Explanation: Allah (Most High) says,
It sailed with them through mountainous waves, and Nuh called out to his son, who had kept himself apart, ‘My son! Come on board with us. Do not stay with the kafirun!’ He said, ‘I will take refuge on a mountain; It will protect me from the flood.’ He said, ‘There is no protection from Allah’s command today except for those He has mercy on.’ The waves surged in between them and he was among the drowned.
46- Hulagu Khan, the Mongol leader launched an all-out attack on the Muslim world, killing the Abbasid Caliph in 1258 and had Makkah, Medina and Jerusalem in his sights. Which Muslim Mongol ruler defeated Hulagu and destroyed the Mongol invasion?
a. Salahudeen Ayyubi
b. Berke Khan
c. Abdul-Hamid II
d. Sultan Baibars
Concept: Allah is the best of planners
Explanation: Genghis Khan’s grandson Berke Khan converted to Islam in the city of Bukhara in 1252. He was the ruler of the Golden Horde (the western khanate of the Mongol Empire). He was the cousin of Hulagu Khan, another ruler in the Mongol Empire. Outraged at Hulagu attacking Baghdad, Berke fought Hulagu and defeated him in 1263. Allah (Most High) says,
“They were planning and Allah was planning, but Allah is the Best of planners.”
47- Which football team has the star and crescent as its emblem, in recognition of the Ottoman assistance to Ireland during the Great Famine?
a. Drogheda United
d. Shamrock Rovers
Concept: Islam is intrinsically part of European history despite attempts to erase it
Explanation: See previous discuss on Ottoman assistance to Ireland during the famine.Founded in 1919, Drogheda Football Club put a star and crescent on their emblem.
48- What religion was the chief physician of the Ottoman Caliph Sulayman The Magnificent?
Concept: Non-Muslim citizens (dhimmi) prospered under Islamic rule.
Explanation: Its well established in history that Jews flourished in the Islamic State after their expulsion from Spain, with some reaching senior positions within the society. Moses Hamon, for example, who after fleeing Spain with his father, became the physician for Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Caliph.
49- Which Caliph refused to sell Palestine to pay off the Islamic state’s debts?
a. Abdul-Mejid I
b. Suleiman the Magnificent
c. Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz
d. Abdul-Hamid II
Concept: Palestine or any Muslim land is up for grabs without a central Islamic Authority to stand up and protect them.
Explanation: Budapest native Theodor Herzl, the leader of the Zionist movement, requested an audience with Sultan Abdülhamid II. When this request was declined, he delivered his offer to the sultan through his close friend, Polish Phillip Newlinsky, in May, 1901. They offered to pay the Ottomans’ foreign debts and to provide propaganda for the Ottoman Sultan in Europe in exchange for opening Palestinian lands to Jewish settlement and transferring governance to the Jewish people.
The sultan declined this offer with the famous saying: “I won’t sell anything, not even an inch of this territory because this country does not belong to me but to all Ottomans. My people won these lands with their blood. We give what we have the way we got it in the first place.” Herzl repeated his offer once again the following year, but the answer was the same.
50- What were the tyrants of Thamud famous for?
a. Carving buildings out of rocks
b. Building the Pyramids
c. Creating the hanging gardens of Babylon
d. Building lofty palaces
Concept: Oppressive civilisations and states believe they can commit crimes with impunity, but their ultimate end is destruction.
Explanation: The relics of past civilisations are a reminder that no matter how powerful a state or civilisation believes itself, if it commits oppression by not ruling by Allah’s rules then it will be destroyed. The Pyramids, Petra, Mad’ain Salih etc are all testament to this fact. Allah (Most High) says:
وَثَمُودَ ٱلَّذِينَ جَابُوا۟ ٱلصَّخْرَ بِٱلْوَادِ
“and Thamud who carved out rocks in the valley-side”
 Hizb ut-Tahrir, ‘Institutions of the Khilafah State,’ Dar ul-Ummah, First Edition, 2005, p.123
 Surah Yusuf, ayaat 54-55
 Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti, ‘History of the Khalifahs who took the right way,’ translation of ‘Tarikh al-Khulafa,’ Ta Ha Publishers, p.193
 Dr Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi, ‘The Rightly-Guided Caliph and Great Reviver ‘Umar bin Abd al-Aziz,’ Darussalam, p.574
 Dean Phillip Bell, ‘Jews in the Early Modern World,’ p.471
 Abaatel Yajibu An-Tamuhhu Minat-Taareekh, by Ibraaheem Shu’oot, p.101; quoted in Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Sadeeq,’ Darussalam, p.235
 Al-Haythami, ‘Sawaa’iq ul-haraqah, p.17 quoted at http://islamicsystem.blogspot.com/2006/05/clear-evidences-for-obligation-of.html
 Henry Christmas, ‘The Sultan of Turkey, Abdul Medjid Khan: a Brief Memoir of His Life and Reign, With Notices of the Country, Its Army, Navy, & Present Prospects’
 M. Hadzijahic and N. Šukric, Islam I Muslimani u Bosni I Hercegovini [Islam and Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina] (Sarajevo: Starješinstvo Islamske Zajednice, 1977), pp.21
 British Museum, https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/C_1874-0706-1
 George Hourani, ‘Arab Seafaring in the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times,’ Octagon Books, New York 1975, pp.57
 Surah Anbiyya, ayah 18
 Merriman, Roger Bigelow, Suleiman the Magnificent 1520-1566.
 Surah Aal-i-Imraan, ayat 36-37
 C. E. Bosworth, ‘A Dramatisation of the Prophet Muhammad’s Life: Henri de Bornier’s “Mahomet”,’ Numen, Vol. 17, Fasc. 2 (Aug., 1970), p.116
 Surah Al-Ahzab, ayah 70
 Surah an-Nahl, ayah 125
 Goodwin, Godfrey (1971). A History of Ottoman Architecture. London: Thames and Hudson. p.412
 Surah Ar-Rahman, ayah 60
 Dr Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab his life and times,’ Vol. 2, p.315
 Firas alKhateeb, ‘Lost Islamic History,’ p.136
 Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, ‘Sealed Nectar,’ translation of Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum, p.74
 Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, his life and times,’ International Islamic Publishing House, volume 1, p.315
 Surah Al-Jumu’a, ayah 10
 Surah Hud, ayaat 42-43
 Surah Al-Anfaal, ayah 30
 Surah Al-Fajr, ayah 9