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The Islamic State of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ established the first Islamic State in Medina with a distinct structure (ajhizaat) that continued with its main pillars until 1924. Although the styles (usloob) and means (waseelah) related to each of the institutions evolved over time, the hukm (rule) remained fixed. In the beginning the Prophet ﷺ took charge of most of these ajhizaat himself. As the state expanded, he ﷺ assigned different sahaba to specific roles.

The main elements (jihaz) of this structure must be implemented because they form a fixed method (tareeqa) and not simply optional subsidiary rules or styles (usloob) which change according to the circumstances.

As with all Islamic rules the general rules are specified in the Holy Qur’an and elaborated in the sunnah through the actions, sayings and silence of the Messenger ﷺ. Allah (Most High) says,

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

You have an excellent model in the Messenger of Allah, for all who put their hope in Allah and the Last Day and remember Allah much.[1]

No value should be given to the words of Ali Abd ar-Raziq who was ex-communicated from Al-Azhar for his claim in 1925 that, “God has left the field of civil government and worldly interests for the exercise of human reason.”[2] Nor should value be given to modern day academics who make claims outside the well-established methodology of ijtihad and usul ul-fiqh, which clearly contradict the sunnah such as Abdelwahab El-Affendi who says, “the political authority which the Prophet established was a voluntary association,”[3] and “sharia can never be imposed.”[4]

What follows is the structure of the first Islamic State established in Medina Munawara and headed by the best of creation, the last prophet and messenger – Muhammad ﷺ

1- The Islamic State

Term of office start Hijri 8 Rabi’ al-awaal, 1
Term of office end Hijri 12 Rabi’ al-awwal, 11
Term of office start Gregorian 20 September 622
Term of office end Gregorian 8 June 632
Term of office 10 years
Capital Medina formerly Yathrib
Allowance The Khums (the fifth) of the war booty.

This fifth used to be, in the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, divided into five shares: one share to Allah ﷺ and the Messenger ﷺ, another for the family of the Messenger ﷺ, and the other three to the orphans, the needy and the wayfarers.

The Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to spend his own share of the Khums on the Muslims and on Jihad in the way of Allah ﷺ, where he would buy camels and horses and weapons, and he would also equip the fighters. It has been reported that when he ﷺ returned from Hunayn, he lifted a camel’s hair and held it aloft in his fingers saying: “I have nothing from that which Allah bestowed upon you even this hair except a fifth of your booty and the fifth I will return to you.”[5]

2- Biography

Profile The master of human beings and master of the messengers
Age at start of rule 51
Tribe Quraysh (Banu Hashim)

 3- Bay’ah Contract

The bay’ah is a ruling contract which governs the relationship between Muslims and the Islamic state. The messenger ﷺ established this method by taking a bay’ah from the Ansar at the second bay’ah of Al-Aqaba. This bay’ah was taken from Muslims who were already obliged to obey the Messenger ﷺ by their belief. This shows that the bay’ah was not on belief but on ruling and the condition of obeying the messenger in the bay’ah was in his capacity as a ruler not a prophet.

Location Al-Aqaba mountain pass, 5km from Makkah
The Bay’ah Second pledge of Al-Aqaba. 73 men and 2 women from the Ansar gave the bay’ah directly to the Prophet ﷺ. Read the article below for further details.

The 75 who gave the Second Pledge of Al-Aqaba

4- Government Structure

Gov-Structure-Medina

Head of State Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Wazir (Assistant Leader)[6] Abu Bakr

Umar ibn Al-Khattab

Deputy Leader in Medina

(He would also be the Imam leading the prayer in Masjid an-Nabawi)

Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoom[7]

Abu Lubaabah ibn ‘Abdul-Mundhir[8]

Sibaa’ ibn Arfatah Al-Ghaffaaree[9]

Muhammad ibn Maslamah[10]

Abu Salamah ibn Abdul-Asad[11]

Uthman bin Affan[12]

Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah [13]

Abu Ruhm Al-Ghifari[14]

Battle of Badr

2nd Deputy during Battle of Badr

Expedition of Daumatul-Jandal

Battle of Tabuk

Expedition of Al-Ushairah

Battle of Dhee-Amr

Battle of Al-Abwaa (Wadaan)

Conquest of Makkah

Executive Assistants (Leader’s private secretaries) Al-Mughirah ibn Abi Shu’bah[15]

Zayd ibn Thabit[16]

Abdullah ibn Al-Arqam ibn Abd Yaghuth[17]

Muayqib ibn Abi Fatimah Al-Dusi[18]

Ubai ibn Ka’ab[19]

Ali bin Abi Talib[20]

Scribe for letter to Najran

Translator of letters from the Jews

Letters to the kings

In charge of official seal

Read intelligence letter from Al-Abbas

Scribe for treaties including Hudaibiyah

4.1 – Shura

There was no formal Majlis in terms of location and formation but the hukm of shura existed as an institution and the sahaba below were those frequently consulted by the Prophet ﷺ.

Shura (Consultative committee)[21] Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Hamza

Umar ibn al-Khattab

Ali bin Abi Talib

Ja’far ibn Abi talib

Bilal ibn Rabaah

Ibn Mas’ud

Salman al-Farsi

Ammaar ibn Yaasir

Abu Dharr

Hudayfah ibn Al-Yamaan

Al-Miqdaad ibn Al-Aswad

4.2 – Treasury (Bait ul-Mal)

The State Treasury (Bait ul-Mal) had no fixed location during the time of the Prophet ﷺ. Funds were spread in the mosque or stored in his ﷺ wives’ houses. As time moved on and the state funds poured in, the location of the Bait ul-Mal changed to a fixed location. In the time of Abu Bakr, he assigned a house in Al-Sanh with a lock and guard. During the time of the Umayyads the funds were stored in the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus on a raised platform only accessible by ladder. This is similar to all institutions (ajhizat) where the hukm remains fixed and the technological advancements (styles and means) evolve over time.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Although the individuals below are listed as tax collectors notably of zakat and jizya or both, it can be argued that in reality many were actually in charge of all treasury functions for the area they were sent to. This would make them regional treasury heads (waali ul-Kharaj).

Treasury Secretary Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Tax Collectors Ibn al-Utbiyya[22]

Buraidah ibn Al-Husaib[23]

Abbaad ibn Bishr[24]

Raafai’ ibn Makeeth[25]

Amr ibn Al-‘Aas[26]

Ad-Dahhaak ibn Sha’baan Al-Kilaabee[27]

Bisr ibn Sufyaan Al-Ka’bee[28]

Ibn Al-Lutaibah Al-Azdee[29]

Al-Muhaajir ibn Abee Umayyah[30]

Ziyaad ibn Labeed[31]

Az-Zabarqaan ibn Badr[32]

Qais ibn Aasim[33]

Ali bin Abi Talib[34]

Al-‘Alaa ibn Al-Hadramee[35]

Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah[36]

Abdullah ibn Rawaahah[37]

Uyainah bin Hisn[38]

Amr ibn Al-‘Aas[39]

Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah[40]

Zakat collector Banu Salim

Tax collector Aslam and Ghafaar tribes

Tax collector Sulaim and Muzainah tribes

Tax collector Juhainah tribe

Tax collector Fizaarah tribe

Tax collector Banu Kilaab

Tax collector Banu Ka’ab

Tax collector Banu Dhibyaan

Tax collector San’aa

Tax collector Hadramoot

Tax collector Banu Sa’d

Tax collector Banu Sa’d

Jizya collector Najran

Tax collector Bahrain

Jizya collector Bahrain

Tax collector to Khaibar.

Tax collector Banu Tamim

Tax collector Jaifar and Amr in Azd

Jizya collector Najran

In charge of spoils of war Abdullah ibn Kaab[41]

Sa’d ibn Ubaadah[42]

Mas‘ud bin ‘Amr Al-Ghifari[43]

Battle of Badr

Selling the property of Banu Quraizah in Ash-Sham

Battle of Hunain

Land surveyor Abdullah ibn Rawaahah[44]

Hudayfah ibn Al-Yamaan[45]

Assess Harvest of Khaibar

Assess the harvest of Al-Hijaz

Secretaries Zubair ibn Al-Awwam[46]

Al-Mughira ibn Shu’ba[47]

Record the funds of the sadaqah

Registering debts and various transactions

Wali ul-Kharaj (Regional Treasury Head) Khaalid ibn Sa’eed ibn Al-‘Aas[48]

Umar ibn al-Khattab[49]

Regions of Murad, Zubair and Midhaj in Yemen

4.3 Media Representatives

Poets[50] Hassān bin Thābit

Abdullah ibn Rawaahah

Ka’ab ibn Malik

Ka‘b bin Zuhayr

Diraar ibn Al-Khattaab

Al-‘Abbaas ibn Mirdaa

Abdullah ibn Az-Zab’aree

Abu Sufyaan ibn Al-Haarith

4.4 – Education

The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was the main teacher of the sahaba. The sahaba then implemented this knowledge practically in their lives and passed on their knowledge to others. This is based on the verse of the Holy Qur’an:

وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ

“Yet it is not right for all the believers to go out [to battle] together: out of each community, a group should go out to gain understanding of the religion, so that they can teach their people when they return and so that they can guard themselves against evil.”[51]

Head of Education Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Teachers Mu’aadh ibn Jabal[52]

Amr ibn Hazm[53]

Ubada ibn As-Samit[54]

Teacher in Makkah

Teacher to Banu Haarith

Teacher in Medina

One of the prisoners of war from the Battle of Badr taught the children of the Ansar to read and write as part of his ransom.[55]

4.5 – Judiciary

Head of Judiciary Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Qadi Hisbah (Inspector) Sa’id ibn Al-As[56] Makkah
Regional Judges Ali bin Abi Talib[57]

Mu’aadh ibn Jabal[58]

Yemen

al-Janad (Yemen)

4.6 – The Mosques

The 5 pillars of Islam are managed by the Islamic state in terms of their implementation, protection and propagation. This includes the administration and appointments of the various roles.

Imam of Masjid an-Nabawi Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq[59]

Deputy Leaders

Lead salah during Prophet ﷺ illness

All deputy leaders would lead the salah during the Prophet ﷺ absence.

Muezzin[60] Bilal ibn Rabaah

Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoom

In charge of mixing clay for building Masjid an-Nabawi[61] Talq ibn al-Yamaami al-Hanafi
Rebuilding the pillars of Masjid ul-Haram in Makkah Abu Usaid Al-Khuza’i[62]
Custodian of keys to the Ka’ba Uthman ibn Talha[63]

4.7 – The Hajj

Head of Hajj[64] Attab ibn Usaid

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

8th hijri

9th hijri

10th hijri

Head of communications[65] Ali bin Abi Talib Informing pilgrims of important news at 9th Hijri Hajj

4.8 – People’s Affairs (administration)

Ahl-Suffah Welfare (housing and feeding the poor)[66] Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Population Census[67] Unnamed

 4.9 – Internal Security (Police)

Chief of Police (Sahib Ash-Shurta) Qays ibn Sa’d ibn `Ubadah[68]
Police Al-Zubair[69]

Ali bin Abi Talib[70]

Abu Marthad[71]

Prevented an intelligence leak prior to Conquest of Makkah by intercepting the letter sent by Hatib bin Abi Balta’a.
Protecting Medina Sa’d ibn Ubaadah[72]

Sa’d ibn Mu’aadth[73]

Usaid ibn Hudair[74]

Sa’d ibn Ubaadah[75]

Battle of Al-Ghaabah

Battle of Uhud

Battle of Uhud

Battle of Uhud

Prophet ﷺ personal protection Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas[76]

Uwaim ibn Saa’idah[77]

Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah[78]

Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari[79]

Intelligence Hudayfah ibn Al-Yamaan[80] Held the secret list of hypocrites.

4.10 – Foreign Affairs

The primary mission of these envoys was to call the leaders to Islam. The Prophet ﷺ would send them with a letter containing his seal and ask the envoy to deliver it personally to the foreign ruler. This was a dangerous mission but these diplomats carried it out with great courage and eloquence in delivering the message.

Envoys Aasim ibn Adee[81]

Al-Haarith ibn Haatib[82]

Muhammad ibn Maslamah[83]

Abu Lubaabah ibn ‘Abdul-Mundhir[84]

Kharraash ibn Umayyah Al-Khuzaa’ee[85]

Uthman bin Affan[86]

Amr ibn Umayyah Ad-Damree[87]

Daihyah Al-Kalbee[88]

Abdullah ibn Hudhaafah[89]

Haatib ibn Abu Balta’ah[90]

Shujaa’ ibn Wahb[91]

Sulait ibn Amr Al-Aamiree[92]

Abul-‘Alaa Al-Hadramee[93]

Amr ibn Al-‘Aas[94]

Al-Haarith ibn Umair Al-Azdee[95]

Amr ibn Kab Al-Ghafari[96]

Mission on behalf of people of Al-Aaliyah

Banu Amr ibn Auf clan

Banu Nadeer

Banu Quraizah

Quraish at Hudaibiyah

Quraish at Hudaibiyah

Negus asking for return of Muslim migrants

Heraql. Byzantine Empire

Kisra. Persian Empire

Al-Muqawqis. Egypt

Al-Mundhir ibn Al-Haarith, leader of Ghassani

Haudhah ibn Alee Al-Hanafee

Al-Mundhir ibn Saawaa, ruler of Bahrain

Jaifar and Abd, rulers of Oman

King of Basra

Dhaat Atlaah

4.11 – Trade and Industry

Military industry[97] Salman al-Farsi Built the armoured car at Seige of Taif. Advised the Prophet ﷺ to adopt the tactic of a trench at Battle of Khandaq
Marketplace[98] Prophet Muhammad ﷺ Established a new marketplace in Medina

4.12 – The Army

Commander in-Chief Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
Commanders (Battle of Badr)[99] Musab ibn Umair

Sa’d ibn Mu’aadth

Ali bin Abi Talib

Qais ibn Abi Sa’sa’ah

Flag bearer (liwaa’)
Commanders (Battle of Uhud)[100] Musab ibn Umair

Usaid ibn Hudair

Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir

Abdullah ibn Jubair[101]

Commander of Muhajireen

Commander of Aws

Commander of Khazraj

Commander of the archers

Commanders (Battle of Khandaq) Salamah ibn Aslam[102]

Zayd ibn Haritha[103]

Usaid ibn Hudair[104]

Commanders (Khaibar)[105] Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Ali bin Abi Talib

Commanders (Battle of Mu’tah)[106] Zayd ibn Haritha

Abdullah ibn Rawaahah

Ja’far ibn Abi Talib

Khalid bin Al-Waleed

Commanders (Conquest of Makkah)[107] Qays ibn Sa’d ibn Ubadah

Khalid bin Al-Waleed

Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam

Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah[108]

Commander of Ansar

Commander of right flank

Commander of left flank

Commander of Infantry

Commanders (Battle of Tabuk)[109] Abu Bakr as-Siddiq

Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam

Usaid ibn Hudair

Abu Dujaanah

Commanders Hamza[110]

Ali bin Abi Talib[111]

Abu Bakr as-Siddiq[112]

Abu Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarrah[113]

Kinaz bin Husain Al-Ghanawi[114]

Mistah bin Athatha bin Al-Muttalib[115]

Maalik ibn Ad-Dukhshum[116]

Commander at Qaynuqah

Commander at Badr al-Mau’id

Commander at Banu Laihyaan

Commander at Dhaat As-Salaasil

First flag carrier in Islam – Saif Al-Bahr Platoon

Flag carrier in Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith

Sent to destroy Masjid Diraar

Guards Abbaad ibn Bishr[117]

Ammaar ibn Yaasir[118]

Abbaad ibn Bishr[119]

Safiyyah bint Abdul-Muttalib[120]

Umar ibn al-Khattab[121]

Anas bin Abi Murthid Al-Ghanawi[122]

Abbaad ibn Bishr[123]

Guard over army at Dhaat al-Riqaa

Guard over army at Dhaat al-Riqaa

Protect Prophet ﷺ at Khandaq

Protect women and children Fortress at Khandaq

Guard duty at Conquest of Makkah

Guard at Hunanin

Guard at Tabook

Military Council (shura)[124] Al-Miqdaad ibn Al-Aswad

Sa’d ibn Mu’aadth

Hubaab ibn Al-Mundhir[125]

Battle of Badr
Military Intelligence (Battle of Badr) Basbas ibn Amr[126]

Ali bin Abi Talib[127]

Zubair ibn Al-Awwam[128]

Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas[129]

Military Intelligence (Battle of Uhud) Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir[130]

Ali bin Abi Talib[131]

Military Intelligence (Battle of Khandaq)[132] Zubair ibn Al-Awwam

Sa’d ibn Mu’aadth

Sa’d ibn Ubaadah

Abdullah ibn Rawaahah

Khawwaat ibn Jubair

Nu’aim ibn Masood[133]

Hudayfah ibn Al-Yamaan[134]

Undercover spy in Ghatfaan tribe

Check if confederate tribes had departed Medina

Military Intelligence (Makkah) Al-Abbas ibn Abdul-Mutalib[135]

Umar ibn al-Khattab[136]

Abbaad ibn Bishr[137]

Bishr ibn Sufyaan Al-Khuza’i[138]

Undercover spy on Quraish in Makkah

Head of spies prior to Conquest of Makkah

Intelligence gathering prior to Hudaibiyah

Intelligence gathering prior to Hudaibiyah

Military Intelligence Ma’bad ibn Abee Ma’bad Al-Khuza’i[139]

Buraidah ibn Al-Husaib[140]

Abbaad ibn Bishr[141]

Abdullah ibn Hadrad Al-Aslami[142]

Battle of Hamra al-Asad

Expedition to Banu Mustaliq

Intelligence gathering at Khaibar

Battle of Hunain

Army Media Aamir ibn Al-Akwaa[143]

Ma’bad ibn Abee Ma’bad Al-Khuza’i[144]

Poet in Army to Khaibar

Army poet

Logistics Al-Mundhir ibn Qudaamah As-Sulamee[145]

Ubadah ibn As-Samit[146]

Abu Khaitamah[147]

Aishah bint Abu Bakr[148]

Umm Sulaim[149]

Hamnah bint Jahsh[150]

Muhammad ibn Maslamah[151]

Safwaan ibn Al-Mu’attil As-Sullamee[152]

Rufaidah Al-Aslamiyyah[153]

Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir[154]

Ilqimah ibn Al-Faghwaa Al-Khuzaa’ee[155]

Muhammad ibn Maslamah[156]

In charge of prisoners at Qaynuqah

In charge of Qaynuqah evacuation

Pathfinder leading army to Uhud

Provide water to Uhud fighters

Provide water to Uhud fighters

Provide water to Uhud fighters

In charge of Banu Nadeer expulsion from Medina

Picking up items dropped by army at Banu Mustaliq

Head of military hospital in Medina at Khandaq

Finding a location for army at Hunain

Army guide at Tabook

Guarding weapons at compensatory umra

5 – Map of the State

Prophet saw land conquered 1 0

6 – Provinces

6.1 – Arabian Peninsula

Province (wiliyah) Governors (wulah) in chronological order
Medina Prophet Muhammad ﷺ or his deputy
Makkah 1. Attaab ibn Aseed[157]
At-Taif 1. Maalik ibn ‘Auf An-Nasree[158]

2. Uthman ibn Abul-‘Aas[159]

Jursh 1. Abdullah ibn Noor[160]
Yamaamah 1. Sulait ibn Qais[161]
Banu Haarith 1. Qais ibn Al-Husain[162]
Murad, Zubair and Midhaj 1. Farwa b. Musayk[163]
Bahrain 1. Al-Mundhir ibn Sawa[164]

2. Al-Alaa ibn Al-Hadrami[165]

3. Iban b. Said b. Al-Aass[166]

4. Al-Alaa ibn Al-Hadrami[167]

 6.2 – Yemen

Yemen was initially one province under the authority of Baadhaan ibn Saasaan[168]. When he died Yemen was split in to a number of provinces.

Province (wiliyah) Governors (wulah) in chronological order
Sana’a 1. Shamar ibn Baadhaan[169]
Ma’rib 1. Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari[170]
Al-Jund, Khaulaan 1. Ya’la ibn Abu Umayyah[171]

2. Muadh Ibn Jabal[172]

Hamdhaan 1. Aamir ibn Shamr Al-Hamdaanee[173]
Zama’, Zabeed and Aden 1. Khaalid ibn Sa’eed ibn Al-‘Aas[174]

2. Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari[175]

Najraan 1. Amr ibn Hizaam[176]

2. Jareer ibn Abdullah[177]

Hadramawt 1. Ziyaad ibn Labeed Al-Biyaadee[178]
As-Sakaasik, As-Sukoon 1. ‘Ukkaashah ibn Thaur[179]

7 – Spread of Islam

7.1 – Military Expeditions

Military Expeditions 1Military Expeditions 2

Military Expeditions List PDF

7.2 – Key Observations

The army is one of the jihaz or organisations of the state. The Messenger ﷺ was the commander-in-chief so he organised the army and appointed all its commanders. He ﷺ led many of the battles directly which are known as a ghazwa while also appointing commanders of other units known as a sariya.

Expeditions-infographic

INFOGRAPHIC PDF

Key Observations

Military expeditions (ghazwa) led directly by the Prophet ﷺ 28
Military units (sariya) led by commanders appointed by the Prophet ﷺ 65
Total number of military expeditions 93
Total number of military commanders (excluding the Prophet ﷺ) 43
  1. Year 6 Hijri saw a huge increase in the number of military expeditions and conquests. This was due to the signing of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah which Allah (Most High) refers to as a clear victory,

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا

“Truly We have granted you a clear victory.” (Al-Fath, 48:1)

 

  1. The number of expeditions led directly by the Prophet ﷺ decreased over time as the sahaba took a more leading role after their training at the hands of the Messenger ﷺ.

 

  1. The Prophet ﷺ appointed a total of 43 different sahaba as commanders so they all gained experience in this role. After his ﷺ death these commanders played a vital role in the Islamic conquests such as Khalid ibn Al-Walid, Amr ibn al-Aas and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah.

 

  1. Three of the Khulufa Rashida were appointed as military commanders namely, Abu Bakr, Umar and Ali. This experience was important for their future roles as Commanders-in-chief of their respective armies.

 

  1. The population of the Islamic State was continually expanding through new conquests and people accepting Islam. This meant greater manpower for the later military units that were sent out. Compare the 313 soldiers at the Battle of Badr to the 30,000 at the Battle of Tabook.

 

  1. Ramadan and the month following it, Shawwal, saw the most expeditions and conquests. This continued throughout Islamic history where the zeal for increasing good deeds during the holy months translated into conquests.

 

 

By A.K.Newell, Editor of IslamCiv.com

More in this series…

History of the Caliphs: Abu Bakr As-Siddiq
History of the Caliphs: Umar ibn Al-Khattab
History of the Caliphs: Uthman bin Affan
History of the Caliphs: Ali ibn Abi Talib (coming soon)
History of the Caliphs: Hassan ibn Ali (coming soon)


References

[1] Holy Qur’an, Surah Al-Ahzab, verse 21

[2] Albert Hourani, ‘Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age 1798- 1939,’ Cambridge University Press, p.187

[3] Abdelwahab El-Affendi, ‘Who needs an Islamic State?,’ Second Edition, Malaysia Think Tank London, 2008, p. 60

[4] Ibid, p. 140

[5] Abdul-Qadeem Zalloom, ‘Funds in The Khilafah State’ translation of ‘Al-Amwal fi Dowlat Al- Khilafah‘, Al- Khilafah Publications, p.39

[6] Al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak, vol.1, p.10, #3046 and Tirmidhi, Sunan, #3680

[7] Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ p.948

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid, p.1305

[10] Ibid, p.1830

[11] Ibid, p.879

[12] Ibid, p.1061

[13] Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, ‘The Sealed Nectar’ translation of Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum, p.93

[14] Ibid, p.174

[15] Abu Yusuf, Kitab ul-Kharaj

[16] Sunan Abi Dawud 3645, https://sunnah.com/abudawud/26/5

[17] Ibn Ishaq narrated from Abdullah ibn Al-Zubayr

[18] Sunan an-Nasa’i 5205 https://sunnah.com/nasai/48/166

[19] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1099

[20] Ibid, p.1524

[21] Taqiuddin an-Nabhani, ‘The Ruling System in Islam,’ Fifth Edition, p.52

[22] Bukhari 7197, https://sunnah.com/bukhari/93/58

[23] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1798

[24] Ibid

[25] Ibid

[26] Ibid

[27] Ibid

[28] Ibid

[29] Ibid

[30] Ibid

[31] Ibid

[32] Ibid

[33] Ibid

[34] Ibid, p.1799

[35] Ibid

[36] Sunan Ibn Majah 3997, https://sunnah.com/ibnmajah/36/72

[37] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1598

[38] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.185

[39] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1808

[40] Ibid, p.1932

[41] Ibid, p.988

[42] Ibid, p.1422

[43] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.182

[44] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1598

[45] Hizb ut-Tahrir, ‘Institutions of State in the Khilafah,’ translation of ‘Ajhizat Dawlat-al-Khilafah,’ p.44

[46] Ibid

[47] Ibid

[48] Ibn Hisham, ‘As-Sīrah an-Nabawiyyah’

[49] Bukhari 1468, https://sunnah.com/bulugh/7/129

[50] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1057 & p.1796

[51] Holy Qur’an, Surah At-Tawba, verse 122

[52] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1746

[53] Ibid, p.1934

[54] Ibid, p.738

[55] Ibid, p.1027

[56] Tabaqaat of ibn Sa’d and in Al-Istiab of Ibn ‘Abd al- Barr

[57] ‘Institutions of State in the Khilafah,’ Op.cit., p.74

[58] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1935

[59] Ibid, p.1980

[60] Ibid, p.733

[61] Ibid, p.747

[62] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.177

[63] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1707

[64] Ibid, p.1918

[65] Ibid, p.1919

[66] Ibid, p.738

[67] Ibid, p.882

[68] Sahih al-Bukhari 7155, https://sunnah.com/bukhari/93/19

[69] Sahih al-Bukhari 3983, https://sunnah.com/bukhari/64/34

[70] Ibid

[71] Ibid

[72] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1469

[73] Ibid, p.1105

[74] Ibid

[75] Ibid

[76] Ibid, p.882

[77] Ibid, p.1068

[78] Ibid, p.1504

[79] Ibid, p.1600

[80] Ibid, p.1908

[81] Ibid, p.1012

[82] Ibid

[83] Ibid, p.1261

[84] Ibid, p.1405

[85] Ibid, p.1509

[86] Ibid, p.1510

[87] Ibid, p.1592

[88] Ibid, p.1616

[89] Ibid, p.1617

[90] Ibid, p.1619

[91] Ibid

[92] Ibid, p.1620

[93] Ibid

[94] Ibid

[95] Ibid, p.1649

[96] Ibid

[97] ‘Institutions of State in the Khilafah,’ Op.cit., p.81

[98] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.923

[99] Ibid, p.955

[100] Ibid, p.1113

[101] Ibid, p.1114

[102] Ibid, p.1368

[103] Ibid

[104] Ibid, p.1372

[105] Ibid, p.1586

[106] Ibid, p.1650

[107] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.175

[108] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1700

[109] Ibid, p.1831

[110] Ibid, p.1066

[111] Ibid, p.1298

[112] Ibid, p.1468

[113] Ibid, p.1668

[114] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.92

[115] Ibid

[116] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1865

[117] Ibid, p.1292

[118] Ibid

[119] Ibid, p.1364

[120] Ibid, p.1402

[121] al-Mubarakpuri, Op.cit., p.174

[122] Ibid, p.180

[123] As-Sallaabee, Op.cit., p.1831

[124] Ibid, p.954

[125] Ibid, p.958

[126] Ibid, p.947

[127] Ibid, p.956

[128] Ibid

[129] Ibid

[130] Ibid, p.1098

[131] Ibid, p.1163

[132] Ibid, p.1367

[133] Ibid, p.1377

[134] Ibid, p.1383

[135] Ibid, p.1097

[136] Ibid, p.1682

[137] Ibid, p.1491

[138] Ibid

[139] Ibid, p.1166

[140] Ibid, p.1309

[141] Ibid, p.1583

[142] Ibid, p.1755

[143] Ibid, p.1582

[144] Ibid, p.1166

[145] Ibid, p.1067

[146] Ibid, p.1070

[147] Ibid, p.1106

[148] Ibid, p.1173

[149] Ibid

[150] Ibid

[151] Ibid, p.1264

[152] Ibid, p.1325

[153] Ibid, p.1403

[154] Ibid, p.1761

[155] Ibid, p.1831

[156] Ibid, p.1630

[157] Ibid, p.1746

[158] Ibid, p.1777

[159] Ibid, p.1903

[160] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq’, Op.cit., p.299

[161] Ibid

[162] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1934

[163] Ibn Hisham, ‘As-Sīrah an-Nabawiyyah’

[164] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1620

[165] Ibn Sa’d, ‘At-Tabaqat al-Kubra,’ vol. 4 p. 360

[166] Ibid

[167] Dr Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq’, Dar us-Salam Publishers, p.299

[168] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1625

[169] Ibid, p.1939

[170] Ibid

[171] Ibid

[172] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq’, Op.cit., p.299

[173] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1939

[174] Ibid

[175] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq’, Op.cit., p.299

[176] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1939

[177] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Biography of Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq’, Op.cit., p.299

[178] As-Sallaabee, ‘The Noble Life of the Prophet ﷺ,’ Op.cit., p.1939

[179] Ibid